The Complexity of Beliefs

Belief is integral to human existence, moulding our perceptions, decisions and interactions with the world. It shapes how we see ourselves, others and the universe, guiding our thoughts, behaviours and values. But what exactly constitutes belief, and why does it hold such significance?

Defining Belief

At its core, belief is a conviction or acceptance of truth, often devoid of tangible evidence. It spans religious and spiritual convictions to personal philosophies, cultural norms, and ideological principles. Beliefs, whether conscious or unconscious, deeply ingrained or fluid, vary widely among individuals, communities, and cultures.

A defining trait of belief is its subjective nature, distinguishing between dispositional belief and occurrent belief. Dispositional belief refers to enduring beliefs that individuals hold, not necessarily at the forefront of their thoughts but as a part of their underlying convictions. In contrast, occurrent belief is the active, conscious belief that is present at the moment, influenced by immediate circumstances. This distinction highlights the complex ways in which beliefs can be held, reflecting each individual's unique worldview and lived experiences.

The Dual Nature of Belief Systems

Belief is instrumental in shaping human behaviour and identity and informing decisions, actions, and relationships. It instils a sense of purpose, meaning, and belonging, grounding individuals in values and principles that guide their lives.

However, individual beliefs can also entrench and limit perspectives. Rigidity in beliefs risks closing minds to new ideas, experiences and growth opportunities. Cognitive biases stemming from deeply held beliefs filter reality, leading to interpretation bias and dismissal of contradictory evidence. This can foster narrow-mindedness, prejudice and resistance to change, erecting barriers between individuals and communities.

It is crucial to approach beliefs with openness and a willingness to examine and challenge them critically.

The Germ Theory

A historical example that illustrates how rigid beliefs can limit perspectives and hinder progress is the resistance to germ theory in medicine during the 19th century.

Prior to the acceptance of germ theory, the prevailing belief among medical professionals was the miasma theory, which posited that diseases were caused by noxious gases or 'bad air.' This theory attributed the spread of diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, and the bubonic plague to foul odours emanating from decaying organic matter or polluted air.

This resistance was rooted in an unquestioning belief in the miasma theory despite emerging evidence to the contrary.

Despite mounting evidence suggesting a link between microorganisms and disease transmission, many medical professionals and authorities were deeply entrenched in the miasma theory. This belief system influenced medical practices, public health policies and urban planning efforts aimed at combating disease outbreaks.

Belief can profoundly impact society and culture, shaping norms, traditions and collective identities. Shared beliefs underpin communities and civilisations. They influence social structures, institutions, and governance systems, shaping laws, customs, and rituals that govern human interaction.

New call-to-action

Addressing Political Beliefs in the Workplace

Beliefs, shaped by evolving knowledge, scientific discoveries and cultural shifts, can also influence workplace dynamics, particularly through the lens of how beliefs attributed to human beings shape organizational culture and employee expectations. The recent surge in remote work and flexible arrangements is a prime example of this, altering organizational culture, communication methods, and employee expectations.

One significant belief affecting the workplace is the perception of remote work effectiveness. Some employees and managers may perceive remote work as less productive or conducive to collaboration compared to traditional in-office work. These beliefs often arise from concerns about accountability, communication challenges or the absence of face-to-face interaction.

Conversely, others believe that remote work enhances productivity and flexibility, enabling better work-life balance, reduced commuting time, and enhanced focus. These beliefs are supported by personal experiences or research demonstrating the benefits of remote work for employee well-being and job satisfaction.

Statistics strengthen these perceptions. According to a survey by PwC, 55% of remote workers reported being as productive or more productive when working from home compared to an office environment.

Similarly, a study by FlexJobs found that 65% of respondents believe they would be more productive working remotely than in a traditional office setting.

Regarding collaboration, research by Harvard Business Review reveals that 87% of remote workers feel more connected through video conferencing and digital communication tools. Likewise, a survey by Owl Labs showed that 83% of respondents believe that remote work enables more collaborative work with colleagues.

However, concerns and challenges persist. Buffer’s survey indicated that 20% of remote workers reported loneliness as their biggest struggle, while‘s report found that 46% struggle with unplugging after work, posing potential challenges to work-life balance.

These statistics underscore the nuanced landscape of remote work perceptions and highlight the influence of beliefs on workplace dynamics. Managers who hold negative beliefs about remote work may adopt cautious approaches to its implementation or resort to micromanagement. Alternatively, those embracing its benefits may prioritize supportive measures and foster a culture conducive to remote work.

Navigating these beliefs requires open communication, transparency, and trust among employees and managers. Providing training and resources on remote work best practices, promoting adaptability, and actively addressing concerns can mitigate the negative impacts of entrenched beliefs, fostering a more inclusive and productive work environment.

Final Thoughts on Mental Representations of Beliefs

Belief is a multifaceted phenomenon that significantly impacts human life. It underpins perceptions, behaviours and identities, providing a framework for interpreting and navigating the world.

The diversity of religious beliefs, from the religious creed of Christianity to the religious tenets of Islam and the animistic beliefs of indigenous religions, highlights the vast array of religious belief systems that influence human thought and culture. These religious beliefs encompass everything from the teachings of Buddha and Guru Nanak to the mystical beliefs in supernatural beings, demonstrating the profound impact of religious belief on human life.

While beliefs vary widely among individuals and cultures, they influence human thought, action and culture. Understanding belief’s nature offers valuable insights into the human experience and how individuals make sense of existence.

For further reading on belief, check out psychotherapist Tao De Haas’s article “What Is a Belief?” for an insightful exploration.


  1. Karamanou, M., Panayiotakopoulos, G., Tsoucalas, G., Kousoulis, A. A., & Androutsos, G. (2012). From miasmas to germs: a historical approach to theories of infectious disease transmission. Le infezioni in medicina
  2. ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Miasma theory. In Medicine and Dentistry Topics.
  3. PwC. (2020). COVID-19 US remote work survey. Retrieved from
  4. FlexJobs. (n.d.). Remote work increases productivity and more news. Employer Blog. Retrieved from
  5. Bernstein, E., & Turban, S. (2017, November 29). A study of 1,100 employees found that remote workers feel shunned and left out. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from
  6. Owl Labs. (2023). State of hybrid work 2023. Retrieved from
  7. Buffer. (2020). State of remote work 2020. Retrieved from
  8. (n.d.). Remote workers unplugging after work. Retrieved from

Subscribe by email

Get Email Notifications

No Comments Yet

Let us know what you think